I just saw Malcolm Gladwell on The Daily Show.  Apparently his book David and Goliath is about how it can actually be an advantage to have some kind of disadvantage.  He mentioned that a lot of really successful people are dyslexic for example.

But its either an absurdity or just a redefinition of terms to say that disadvantages can be advantageous.  The evidence appears to be a case of sample selection bias. Here’s a simple model. Everyone chooses between two activities/technologies. There is a safe technology, think of it as wage labor, that pays a certain return to everybody except those the disadvantaged. The disadvantaged would earn a significantly lower return from the safe technology because of their disadvantage

Then there is another technology which is highly risky. Think of it as entrepreneurship. There is free entry but only a randomly selected tiny fraction of entrants succeed and earn returns exceeding the safe technology. Everyone else fails and earns nothing. Free entry means that the expected return (or utility thereof) must be lower than the safe technology else all the advantaged would abandon the latter.

The disadvantaged take risks because of their disadvantage and a small fraction of them succeed.  All of the highly successful people have “advantageous” disadvantages.

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